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Effects of taxes and benefits, UK

The redistribution effects on individuals and households of direct and indirect taxation and benefits received in cash or kind, analysed by household type.

The effects of taxes and benefits (ETB) estimates are the only statistics available that provide a complete picture of the distribution of household income including indirect taxes and benefits in kind.

ETB estimates provide long-term trends in household income of retired and non-retired households, for income quintiles and deciles, with detailed breakdowns by income component (including individual taxes and benefits). They inform on long-term trends in income inequality, measured through the Gini coefficient and S80/S20 and P90/P10 ratios.

They provide characteristics of income quintile or decile groups, including:

  • number of adults or children
  • household type
  • tenure
  • age or employment status of chief economic supporter

All data hosted on the Integrated Data Service (IDS) are de-identified.


Demography, Earnings, Equality, Inequality, Household characteristics, Pay and incentives, Benefits